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Time Management Organizational Theory

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Organizational theory refers to the complex study of organizational design, structures, functions and processes and relationships of organizations with their external and internal environment. Moreover, this concept includes the professional behavior of managers and the ways in which the organization and its personnel could better solve the problems that arise because of rapid changes. The task of this paper is to research organizational theory as a practical function relative to organization structure, processes, and functions.

The Scientific Management Concept

There is a certain number of theories that explain the specific organizational processes and organizational structures. However, it is important to underline that classical organizational theory includes scientific management, Weber`s bureaucratic theory and administrative theory.

There is a need to analyze every of this concepts to understand the way organizations function and realize their main tasks.

The scientific management concept lies in the idea of planning all working processes in order to achieve maximum efficiency and simplification. However, this concept is directed at the increase of productivity of the organization with the help of trust based relationships between the managers of the organization and its employees. Taylor proposed four basic principles of scientific management that could effectively increase productivity:

  1. Science based on the real facts and evidence.
  2. Scientific model of hiring employees that would coupe with the main task of the organization.
  3. Labor cooperation and diplomatic solutions rather than conflicts (as cited in Daft & Armstrong, 2009).

The second concept to discuss is Weber`s bureaucratic theory that considers organization as one of the basic grounds for broader society. This concept also has several main principles that form the understanding of the essence of the organization functioning:

  • structure;
  • specification;
  • stability;
  • democracy;
  • rationality and planning (Daft & Armstrong, 2009).

Moreover, this concept is rather impersonal and abstract. It means that it does not provide any personal advice regarding any particular situation in the organization.

The last classical concept to discuss would be administrative theory that was first presented by Henry Fayol and is actually based on the key principles of management. He presented management of organization as a set of certain actions directed at planning, organization, specific professional training and other administrative functions (Hemant, 2011).

Neoclassical theory points out the importance of personal relationships in organization and their influence on the productivity. This concept has specific features that determine its essence: individual character of the principles, participatory management and the importance of individual and group work for the final result. (Daft & Armstrong, 2009) There is also another group of theories that explain the grounds and principles of organization functioning and structure. Modern theories declare that organization should be adaptable to possible changes in the environment. Their main task is concentrated on the management that would be team oriented and aimed at the changing conditions of the environment. The systems theory, socio-technical theory and situational theory could be named among modern theories of organization.

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The systems theory presented the organization as a number of sub-systems that have strong connection and mutual dependence. However, any organization could be presented as a number of components, elements that are used to connect different organizational processes and goals (Hemant, 2011).

Time Management and Socio-Technical Theory

The second concept to discuss is the socio-technical theory that presented the organization as the complex element that contains a number of simpler parts. Thus, such complex system includes social and technical systems and their internal and external environment. However, harmony and balance between these two elements are necessary for the effective functioning of the entire organization (Sapru, 2008). The situational theory states that organizational systems are connected with the environment and thus, different conditions presented in the environment require different organizational tools and mechanisms of reaction. This concept also points out the necessity of time management and effective decision-making process.

There is an important element in determination of the essence and values of the organization. Firstly, it should be determined whether the organization identifies itself as the social system. Thus, social organization could be characterized by complex organizational structure, the level of sub-systems influence , clear and balanced purposes, functions, tools and mechanisms of realization.

The Goals of the Organization Activity

The next important element under consideration is connected with the goals of the organization activity. The main essence of the organization and its purposes should be taken into account. Thus, the important goals should include the following aspects:

Clear tasks for every worker in the organization;

  1. Identification of problems and possible solutions.
  2. The ways to lower the mess level in the working process.
  3. The search for the connection between activity of organization and its achievements.
  4. The assistance in time management and personal resources of all workers of the organization.
  5. Provide the sense of common work and common result.
  6. Personnel management.
  7. Coordinate the activity of all members of the organization at every stage of the working process (Hemant, 2011).

There is a specific process of goal setting that involves five main steps. That means that goals could vary in different organizations according to their activities and aims. Thus, the first step could be presented by defining the objectives of the organization activity and only then figuring out the plan of further development. The second step is directed at the effective work with personnel for the productive implementation of the prepared plan of actions. Individual goals and aims could be presented in the third step. The feedback on the activity and methods is the next step that could help to understand the results of the implementation of the prepared plan. The last fifth step concerns the final result that could be obvious after the analysis of the activity.

However, there is a need to underline the importance of integration and coordination in any organization. These concepts are presented as the controlling tools and mechanisms for the most effective productivity of the organization. Coordination is the basic activity aimed at the control over the performance of the organization and its re-arrangement. Integration means the activity that is based on the connection between different activities that have the same idea concerning organizational functions. The need for these mechanisms arises in the situation of rapid changes in the environment and necessity to find solutions within short period of time.

Integration is not easy to achieve. The highest productivity of the organization could be achieved by the harmony between coordination and integration of different elements of the organization. Integration process could be improved by the number of specific tools and methods. These tools include professional training and education, special rules and different organizational procedures (Sapru, 2008).

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The next important thing to discuss concerning administrative process in the organization involves the question of division of powers, decision-making process and communication between separate units. The question of division of powers arises because of the importance of individual or group responsibility for performing separate tasks or entire policy of the organization. The volume of power depends on education, knowledge, position, professional status, personality and ideology. It is obvious that power is the strongest tool of control, coordination and best motivation; it provides additional opportunities and resources.

Communication between the units is another important element of organization functioning. It is the main tool in achieving the balance between coordination and integration processes on different levels of the organization. There are some kinds of communication: downward, upward and horizontal communication.

Decision-making process is one of the determining factors of total productivity level of the organization. It starts with the setting of priorities and goals, determining the problem, finding alternatives, making choice of a suitable solution for a particular situation and taking control over its implementation.

No doubt that there is a certain number of theories that explain specific organizational processes and organizational structures. However, organizational theory could be considered as the complex study of organizational design and organizational structures, functions and processes, relationships of organizations with their external and internal environment. It includes multiple elements that need to stay in harmony for total balance and productivity of the organization. Power division, proper management and control over activity are the main tools that could keep organizational mechanism in harmony.

Conclusion

One of the classical concepts of organization is based on the idea of planning all working processes in order to achieve maximum efficiency and simplification. However, this activity is directed at the increase of productivity of the organization by the way of trust based relationships between the managers of the organization and its workers. It seems that this idea should be the basic ground for the activity of different kinds of organizations. However, there is a need to emphasize the importance of integration and coordination in any organization. These concepts are presented as the controlling tools and mechanisms for the most effective productivity of the organization. There are a lot of complex elements in the systems of organization. The integrity of the systems could be observed and analyzed in terms of final results of the organizational productivity. Harmony and balance between management and human resources together with new technologies, educational units and coordination activity may give the best result that could ever be achieved. The need to use of all these mechanisms arises in the situation of the rapid changes in the environment and necessity to find proper solutions within a short period of time.

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