Gender Identity

Abstract

The current paper analyses how counseling can be done in a multicultural society. It notes that gender studies should be included in contexts in which men and women act. At the same time, multicultural psychology should recognize gender. Focusing on women in an ethnic group, who are understudied, develops this theme. Gender must be recognized as part of every aspect of mental and practice research.

 

Gender should also be well thought-out as a facet of customs, just as background now is considered. The writing in psychology is reviewed to demonstrate how wrong beliefs and exclusion work to minimize examination of gender and ethnicity. This paper suggests that just as gender studies should be included in contexts in which men and women conduct themselves. At the same time, multicultural psychology should recognize gender.

Keywords: sexuality, multiculturalism, identity, race

Introduction

Sexuality is how one expresses the sexual desire and erotic fulfillment. It refers to the psychological, biological, and social dimensions of human sexual desire. It is included here because people's sexuality is often interrelated with gender identity. It includes links to information that analyze alternative ways of expressing romantic and sexual attraction. Counseling as used by psychologists to help people in society is a crucial part of psychology. Handling people with various cultures and challenges and being able to help them is not an easy task.

Some ways in which different kinds of victims in life can be handled have been discussed. Some include counseling men who use violence for defense, working with men in families and bonding with their children, caring for the old, and handling sexually abused men in their childhood. In some cultures, women are submissive while in other cultures there is equality (Fairchild, 2002). Dealing with such societies requires skills.

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Sexuality and Gender Identity

Gender, sexuality, and sexual orientation represent important issues of every person's identity. Most people have gender identity and sexual orientation regardless of whether they talk about it or make it obvious to others. This topic might be sensitive mainly for those who do not obey the traditional gender identities, a heterosexual point of reference or participate in customary monogamous relationships.

It is crucial for professionals to understand and be sensitive to the mixture of sexual orientations, romantic relationships, and gender identities that exist in a multicultural environment. Counselors have various approaches to dealing with all types of personalities.

Aspects of identity as related to gender and sexuality can be considered singly but may be organized for many individuals (Schwartz, 2010). Some of these aspects of gender are often addressed through organized groups and in writing, which also addresses sexuality. Relations of sexual orientation and gender become especially complex in individuals who do not conform to traditional gender roles or identify as heterosexual. Consequently, issues of gender, sexual orientation, and sexuality are noted here together. The term gender identity is an individual's identification in the field of gendered qualities. It is a person's internal identification as a man or woman.

Feminism

Feminists have analyzed patriarchy for many years. They concluded that men have constructed the world for themselves as a region where cruel force reigns (Carney, Krieger, & Banaji, 2010). Dealing with masculinities and their devastating cost for women and girls is part of the work involved in the fight for gender equality. Research on masculinities is necessary with respect to the intersectional approach demonstrating responsiveness towards diversity and compound balances of supremacy as practiced by other people.

One of the methods to counsel men on aspects of masculinity must be directed towards the promotion of equity for both genders. It has to be pro-feminist so that the counseling ultimately has a positive impact on the state of affairs of women in conflict areas and post-conflict countries (Goff, Eberhardt, Williams, & Jackson, 2008).

What is needed is masculinity counseling that does not become an end in itself. It has to prevent and fight violence against women and the result must be a reduction in violence. When working scientifically contributions of women must be reflected upon, as it is not objective. There has to be complementary work for both genders. Men's awareness of wrongdoing needs to be developed to have a change of pattern achieved in their patriarchal attitude. The guidance that ensures the power and hierarchies between men and women does not take a biased stance is encouraged.

Encouragement of inclusion of women on peace missions, security policy, overlapping of military operations, and development of cooperation is promoted. Masculinity in the actions of warlords, heads of states, diplomats UN, and NATO commanders is eliminated. Critics have set their sights on some military historians, political scientists, and defense politicians who deal with a tactical campaign.

In women's organizations, it's natural that their work will be suppressed, reduced, or manipulated into taking another direction if men are included. There is a possibility that they will be given the power and women in the projects will be marginalized (Ostrander, 2008).

Women working with men tend to gain comrades-in-arms for the formation of another worldwide social organization where gender equity is the benchmark in all areas of politics and life. Men should also know that women obtain a greater awareness of their own input to the creation of masculinity patterns. Men should show solidarity in encouraging gender equity in politics (McDonald, Keys & Balcazar, 2007).

Patriarchy worldwide has one thing in common which is the ability to exercise violence against women without individual sanctions, predominantly in conflict and crisis situations. Gross inequalities, gender-specific acts of violence, sexual exploitation due to neoliberal globalization policies and conflicts have intensified worldwide. Most UN peacekeeping missions have not led to greater equality for the women population in most countries. The concept of ensuring peace through fighting and the use of violence could be radically challenged through counseling. Violence is the mechanism of supremacy to maintain and safeguard dominance.

All those who trivialize gender-based violence only consider violence as a way of signifying authority. Violence stabilizes dominance. It is important to disclose, combat, and reduce violence from the men because the patterns of power, forms of dominance, and acceptance of violence as a means of implementing interests in public and private life in public and private life in post-conflict countries will not change.

Many female soldiers have been accepting patterns in order to be excellent soldiers and to be accepted by their male counterparts and senior officers. For this to change, targeted masculinity training courses for both genders of soldiers and transparent evaluation is important. Men should be encouraged to work well with women. Women are not the problem but part of the solution as they can work comfortably in male-dominated jobs in spite of their arduous mission away from home.

Feminism is a philosophy that has come late without having real roots in comparison to the greater part of ideologies that have developed in the past centuries. Liberalism and Marxism, which are political and philosophical schools of thought, are linked to feminism. It is a fundamental human movement in the current world. It advocates for equality for all human beings. Men have to be made to understand that women have abilities, which are equivalent to theirs.

Feminism has a number of challenges that lead to skepticism, individualism, and liberalism. Men need to value women as biological beings who can also participate in science. They can give birth unlike men, something which is human nature. Gender Equality has to be practiced in any given society for development to take place.

Men who participate in work that has always been known to belong to women is increasing. Society is dynamic and people have to cope with this fact. Such men face some challenges like being seen as not being men enough or being labeled as women. Men have the same capabilities in doing women's work just like women who do men's work.

Working with males who were sexually abused during childhood is not easy for counselors. Men who have experienced child sexual abuse need to be provided with supportive services that are accessible to all of them. Counselors have been experiencing difficulties in trying to offer support for male victims of sexual mistreatment. Working with men who were victims of sexual harassment in childhood is similar to that of women. Such men tend to struggle with unwelcome memories, feeling overwhelmed, unhelpful thoughts, feelings of guilt and shame with unsure feelings of what to do or say.

Males face widespread social pressures about how they should conduct themselves, feel, and think. The act of a man talking of an experience of sexual abuse and seeking assistance requires a man to face expectations that as a man he should be strong, controlling, and self-reliant, always in control, sane, reasonable, and always ready for sex, and never a victim. Seeking help is portrayed as a sign of weaknesses.

Men fear to disclose the fact that they have been sexually abused since some people tend to question their sexuality. Most of the perpetrators are males and given societal devaluing of same-sex relations then men fear being labeled as gay. It is essential that barriers to disclosure of sexual abuse by men be addressed at a policy and broader societal level to enable men to go public concerning sexual abuse. It is worth investing in services specifically to men who have experienced sexual abuse by creating flyers, postcards, and booklets that attend to men and solve their problems.

Flexible appointment s and waiting times for consultations need to be developed. Individuals working with such men should have access to appropriate information, support, training, and supervision counselors can become isolated just as men do hence the need for them to connect, share knowledge, understanding, resources, and experiences with other counselors doing similar work.

A challenge faced by these counselors is the possibility of burnout or vicarious trauma hence compromising their mental health and general wellbeing. Individual and interpersonal protection is the main concern when working with the experience of sexual exploitation.

This takes time to develop for men because most men close themselves, isolate or even become loud and aggressive. Another challenge is that men only turn up for one or two sessions and exit the counseling. This poses a need of taking time to engage and understand the man's experiences and needs. Some will experience suicidal ideation and others tend to attempt suicide. Men welcome value-talking therapies including those based on feminist values. Group work with men helps men to break down seclusion to assist men to bond with and support men who have had a related incident. Gathering and conversing with other men who have had the identical experience actively contributes to feelings of connection and incorporation that is the third phase of trauma work.

Working With Males in Families

By convention, men are expected to carry out the larger part of breadwinning. Work or family stress is higher in men who are breadwinners, career-oriented, and actively involved in a large quantity of day to day caring and household errands. Those investing in their careers and fathers who stay at home have greater trouble in this part due to thoughts of guilt for not being there. All fathers in families tend to cope with old and new practices to make happy families.

Men and Child Protection

Family dynamics help us to appreciate the variety and numerous capabilities of fathering. Fatherhood helps us to understand family functioning (Tenenbaum & Ruck, 2007). Couples with more different forms of investment and parenting seem to be linked to three possible patterns of fatherhood. Appropriate fathers to their families are those who become the main caregivers and educators of children. They search for quality time with their children and bond well. There is an emphasis on family fusion, gender equality and honesty, and joint fatherhood pattern.

Facets of identity-related to gender, sexual orientation, and sexuality can be considered separately but may be interrelated for some individuals. Consequently, the subject of gender, sexual orientation, and sexuality are discussed together. Centering on ethnic group, women who are understudied develops this theme. Gender must be recognized as part of every aspect of psychological and practice research.

Gender should be well-thought-out as an aspect of customs. The study in psychology is viewed to show how wrong beliefs run to reduce examination of a multicultural society and various gender. Gender identity is an individual's identification in the field of gendered qualities. It is a person's inner identification as male or female.

Sexual Orientation

The term sexual orientation is one's sexual or romantic attraction to a person of a particular gender (Levinson, Cai, & Young, 2010). The sexual course is not chosen; instead, it is part of one's biology and is not determined just by sexual behavior. The term sexual orientation is taken as a sexual preference since there is little evidence to suggest that people have free will to choose their sexual orientation. The term "homosexual" is no longer used in psychological literature. It was used until 1973 to be DSM diagnosis and maintains a derogatory connotation. Preferred terms may include gay, lesbian, or bisexual; nevertheless, it is paramount to check with individuals regarding their preferred identification.

Fear of People of a Non-Heterosexual Orientation

In the psychological literature, the term "heterosexism" assumes that heterosexuality is superior to all other sexual orientations. It is used more commonly in journalism than homophobia and is defined as a value system that denies the value of, separating against any form of non-heterosexual behavior, community, identity, or relationship.

When the group who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual believe heterosexist issues about themselves, they may experience internalized heterosexism, which is the arousing internalization of negative thoughts toward same-gender sexual orientations because of a background that supports heterosexual orientations, undervalues, and disapproves of same-gender sexual orientations. Mainly for people who live in communities where heterosexism is the norm, internalized heterosexism may lead to overwhelming emotional consequences

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Challenges in Handling Men Who Use Hostility to Protect Themselves

Some of these include how to uphold value towards the man whilst being counseled without disapproving his violence and abuse and remain blamed to the feeling of those he has ill-treated. How to help them realize the weight of the hurt he has caused to people he loves in a manner that enables a personal responsibility but avoids minimizing and believe in self-depreciation. A challenge in finding appraisal tools to quantify and keep an eye on levels of esteem, accountability, and responsibility all through the mission (Kim, 2011). How to acknowledge a man is an incident of injustice without sacrificing liability and approval of the injustice. That he has perpetrated and how to establish services that promote respect, accountability, and responsibility.

Counseling Men with Psychiatric Disability

Mental illness can be severe, mild, prolonged, or temporary. The most common forms are anxiety disorders and depression. Mental illness is just like any other illness. People who are victims need to seek help as soon as possible. They also need encouragement from other people so that they get these services. They need to be treated with compassion, understanding, and support for quick recovery. Counselors have a tendency of functioning to enable victims to connect with and to play an active role within the area of their selection.

Discussions that are more open allow people to discover and learn that psychological illness is treatable and patients can assist in the community in a vigorous and healthy way. These people call for the immense support. It is essential through schooling and communication that acceptance of such illnesses is enhanced. Life expectancy has been growing steadily for so many years. There has been an increasingly active phase of life in retirement where citizens have opportunities to keep on serving the public by working longer by volunteering in their communities and taking individual responsibility for their own safety by functioning, saving, and taking care of their physical condition.

Some of the ways of improving health and welfare services for older men include improving recruitment and withholding of an aging workforce. Engaging people to work extra years helps to support the financial, health, and social wellbeing of persons later in life. It removes the possibility of them being a burden. Helping older people to get online is another way. The entire world is changing from the provision of social services of interaction to digital (Akalis, Banaji, & Kosslyn, 2008).

There is a need to provide high-quality digital services to older people such that they are able to benefit fully through independence. Older people need to be celebrated by marking older people's day. This day is put aside to commemorate the achievements and contributions that older people create to the world and financial system. The obsolete stereotypes have to be uninvolved. Finally, an opportunity has to be developed to help develop the liberty, wellbeing, and security of grown-up people and to address the opportunities and difficulties faced by elder people.

There has to be a committee that provides a better value of life for the elderly through local services that are calculated to meet their requirements currently and in the future. They have to be made lively to avoid cases of long-term seclusion and group segregation. Gender identity allows one to see the connections between various cultures, social, representational, and symbolic perspectives. The subject of feminism is one of the subjects that have gone through important changes.

The females have been empowered by counseling and self-determination. The theory of gender emphasizes the importance of politics in a multicultural society. Women have been sidelined for a long time. They have been undermined in many areas and they require support. They have suggested applied politics and situated perspective to solve these problems.

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Conclusion

Men are more difficult to handle during counseling due to gender differences and masculinity. They fear to seek help since they are always expected to be self-reliant. They also tend to fear to open up and discuss their challenges with peers for fear of stigmatization. Gender difference is important to identity formation. It gives the ideal framework to support the process and explain the displeasure of dominant identities. Feminism is a non-rationalistic subject by which culture and language constitute a crucial role. Gender and sexuality represent important aspects of every person's identity.

All people have gender identity and sexual orientation, regardless of whether they talk about it or make it obvious to others. This is majorly for those who do not conform to traditional gender identities, a heterosexual orientation or participate in traditional monogamous relationships. It is essential for professionals to understand and be sensitive to the diversity in sexual orientations, gender identities, and romantic relationships that exist in a multicultural society.

Annotated Bibliography Sample

Akalis, S. A., Banaji, M. R., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008)

The authors conducted two experiments to effects of providing individual racial identity in regard to crime. This expounded on the impact the alerts have on racial group stereotypes. The authors studied 33 Asian and white undergraduate students who participated in visualized fictional crimes organized in four different scenarios. The outcome of the research showed that participants had negative stereotypes towards Blacks as a group.

Carney, D., Krieger, N., & Banaji, M. R. (2010)

The study tested person-group discrimination discrepancy (PGDD). This theory suggests disadvantaged groups believe that members within their group are discriminated against. The authors used both implicit and explicit measures of discrimination. The explicit measures showed that African Americans and women reported more discrimination toward members of their groups. These measures were done by grouping disadvantaged individuals and witnessing their rate of responses.

Fairchild, S. R. (2002)

The author is a professor at the University of Kentucky in the school of social work. The study describes gender identity with respect to women and race and the resulting discrimination that they suffer in society. In this research, there is a discussion of the double jeopardy in the roles played by women across various cultures and races. In addressing the barriers the author advocates for attitudinal, environmental, and institutional changes. He provides special actions for macro and micro-level practice.

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Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M., & Jackson, M. C. (2008)

The authors demonstrated that United States citizens implicitly associate black people with apes. This has arrived after series of laboratory studies where the participants were primed with a broad range of white faces and black faces. Through a series of questionnaires and tasks, the authors reveal a strong bidirectional association between apes and blacks that directs attention and visual perception. The research also demonstrates that the way media demonstrates the black as apes assists the jury to execute blacks who are majorly defendant.

Kim, E. (2011)

The author is a researcher at the University of Wisconsin. He discusses the narratives of disabled individuals about the issue of sexuality. The authors state that societal stigma is not necessarily because of asexuality that is imposed on different citizens with disabilities. In this research also, the author's points out that it should not be assumed that able individuals should not be assumed to poses the same sexual desires. Finally, the authors state the need for empowerment and self-determination in identity formation.

Levinson, J. D., Cai, H., & Young, D. (2010)

The researchers argue that there is a need to conduct more research on how racism affects identity and influence criminal law. The authors gauge the relationship between perceptions, guilt, and race using their own implicit association test. The authors also find the existence of an association between assumptions of guilt and blacks while discussing their findings and implications. The research is racial neutral hence discusses the impact of racial and gender identity.

McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007)

The authors, who were in the Department of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, did an investigation on the intersectionality between different sociopolitical statuses and abilities in respect to oppression, which is gender, race, and class. In their research, the authors analyzed qualitative data involving thirteen college students and found that individuals who were disabled in any area of learning and minority in the race had lower accurate learning capabilities as compared to native healthy students. In addition, the authors believe that assisting the learner to adapt to the challenges develops their self-worth and dignity. This research also exhibits the implication for macro and micro social work practice.

Ostrander, R. N. (2008)

The author, a researcher for the Social Work Department at DePaul University, analyses the grounded theory in its application to intersectionality. The study involved different men with spinal cord injuries and from different races. The outcome of the study showed that dependence that arose from the injury made patients difficult to associate with their ethnic/ racial identities. This was due to, most men from cultures where men should be breadwinners felt useless after the injuries. The author in their findings also advocated for cultural sensitivity and competence when dealing with the disabled population.

Schwartz, M. A. (2010)

The author, an associate professor of law at Syracuse University, uses his life narration to expound on how identity formation as a man and a member of a deaf community has been hard. He explains how he has tried to ignore his deafness but all had an insignificant impact on his psychological pain. The author shares the obstacles he has confronted due to that not everyone understands the American Sign Language, hence many parts of the society remain in the dark because they cannot hear. The author's view demands social workers' acknowledgment of the responsibility of the society towards the deaf and their identity.

Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2007)

The research applied a meta-analysis of over 30 studies examining student effort, talent grade point average and, academic ability. The researchers concluded that teachers had negative expectations from other colors than white students. The study also showed that teacher ratings revealed that teacher academic, expectations, performance, or both had lower scores for Latino and African American students than for white students. In addition, the research showed that teachers punished more students of other colors as compared to white students.

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